Journal of the College of Basic Education <p><strong>The Journal of the College of Basic Education (CBEJ) is a refereed scientific journal issued by the College of Basic Education / Al-Mustansiriya University (Baghdad - Iraq) every three months and in two parts, one part for humanities and educational sciences and one part for pure sciences. Its first issue was in 1994 under the name of the Journal of Teachers College, whose name was changed to correspond with the name of the college in 2004 to the Journal of the College of Basic Education.</strong></p> <p><strong>The magazine holds a digital identifier (DOI).</strong></p> <p><strong>It also holds the International Standard Number (ISSN).</strong></p> <p><strong>ISSN: 1815-7467 (Print)</strong><br /><strong>ISSN: 2706-8536 (Electronic)</strong></p> الجامعة المستنصرية en-US Journal of the College of Basic Education 1815-7467 Visual space in experimenting with the poetry of the eighty generation in Iraq <p>There is no doubt that the poet's sense of modernity prompted him to feel the inability of traditional forms to perform what the poet seeks to communicate or express; Therefore ((the poets tried to abandon poetry based on the rhetoric of language as a tool...and try to work on the material language to produce a new audio and visual rhetoric)) () they seek freedom in creating new forms ((based on the fact that the poet is always required to search for new forms worthy of what It is renewed in the depths of the poem from propositions)) (), so the poet resorted to destroying the old forms and started dreaming ((that there would be poetry in which all the senses participate)) (), focusing a lot in this quest on employing the sense of sight,</p> أ. د. يونس عباس حسين علي هاشم المالكي Copyright (c) 2022 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 1 41 The content and the building in the moral advice of Ibn Lyon Al-Andalusi <p>Ethical values ​​are human, general and without specification, but there are moral values ​​with certain characteristics that are monopolized by nations over others, by virtue of their innate and civilized readiness, due to a difference in thinking and reasoning, and a difference in understanding and perception. At a time when some moral values ​​are subject to factors of change, modification or decay; Motivated by the course of time and its rapid development, there are moral values ​​other than them that are not subject to change, nor are they dealt with by change, nor are they subject to decay. Being fixed in origins, well-established roots, eternal influence on souls and minds.<br>These fixed moral values ​​necessarily affect the behavior of man, and draw him strongly to his lived reality, with his full thought and feeling, and help him to rise above what detracts from his dignity and dignity, and takes him by the hand to reassurance, tranquility and success.</p> أ . م . د . محمود شاكر محمود Copyright (c) 2022 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 41 81 Farewell to the poets of spinning in the Umayyad era Omar bin Abi Rabia and Jamil bin Muammar by choice <p>Praise be to God, Lord of the worlds, and prayers and peace be upon Muhammad and his family and companions altogether, and after:<br>At the beginning of talking about the subject of this research, I have to say through it that farewell, in addition to being a prominent phenomenon in the poetry of ghazals in the Umayyad era, however, at the same time it became a precautionary position that the person of that era was forced to take, when he felt or imagined that something threatened or It lacks its entity, and from here and in view of this saying, I cannot count the farewell to the poets of the Umayyad courtship as a secretion of my life of luxury and well-being that they live, but it has become an urgent necessity that derives its meaning and its becoming from the nature of the depositor himself in particular and from the nature of the general situation that he worked to create in a more general way.</p> أ.م.د.حسين علي عبد الحسين الدخيلي أ.م.د.حامد علي غيلان Copyright (c) 2022 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 81 121 Moral reasoning and its sound ripples in modern Arabic poetry An original analytical study <p>This research deals with conducting an original study of a new term, which is (moral reasoning), and it is a concept derived from (good reasoning), due to its compatibility with the nature of modern poetry, whose contexts are characterized by ambiguity and strangeness, especially the explanatory context in which the reason is vague and the reasoning is more ambiguous. Therefore, the study determined the linguistic meaning And the terminology of the concept (moral reasoning) and the reasons that led to its selection and then its application to poetry. In addition, I tried to study the concept in terms of its sound ripples and its relationship to the context and its relationships in modern Arabic poetry.</p> أ.م.د.اسراء حسين جابر Copyright (c) 2022 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 121 149 Functional writing (Form thesis, summary, and report) <p>If reading is one of the windows of knowledge, and one of the most important tools of education by which a person stands on the results of human thought, then writing is - in fact - the pride of the human mind, rather it is the greatest thing that the mind has produced. (Fadlallah, 2008: 53), (Madkour, 2009: 265), and (Al-Khaffaf, 2014: 196).<br>Writing is the greatest discovery made by man during his long history, with which he was able to record his production and heritage, and to take from the past and present what prepares the way for subsequent generations. (Al-Jaafrah, 2011: 273).</p> أ. م. حميد محمود كطب Copyright (c) 2022 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 149 165 Color performance in pre-Islamic poetry Four poets as a model <p>Starting with the research, the research contained illumination of aspects related to the pre-Islamic poets' use of colors, and their tendency to add the well-known and tangible colors in their world to their senses, so that their features are clearly evident and their dimensions are defined, and they used the colors in a successful use, and distributed them properly. , and its different meanings for the pre-Islamic poets according to the place or the colored thing, then the research turned to extrapolation of the many color models, and we found that the color performance of the pre-Islamic poets included a valid area of ​​color space, as well as the wide spread of colors in pre-Islamic poetry, and they invested the meaning of colors,</p> م . رعد عبد الجبار جواد Copyright (c) 2022 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 165 189 A dramatic approach to poetry, the poem Wait for Me at the Edge of the Sea by the poet Youssef Al-Sayegh as a model <p>The art of theater is one of the important human arts in any society and in various civilizations and eras to this day. Creators and those interested in theatrical arts have been using reality as well as life circumstances to write their theatrical texts, trying to address social problems and present their different points of view.<br>Those interested in dramatic art and writers of literature did not suffice at this point in their treatment of life circumstances and problems, but rather opened up to other worlds of creativity represented by their use of fictional art. and poetry. Narrative art.</p> أ. م. د. ناصر هاشم بدن طالب هاشم بدن Copyright (c) 2022 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 189 209 A new reading of the desert anthem Arab Lamia <p>Al-Shanfari Amr bin Malik Al-Azdi from Bani Al-Harith bin Rabi’a, a poet known for his poem of Arab illiteracy, the anthem of the desert, the passion of the ears of its recipient, and he played a string that his opponents sang before his disciples, after he explored his own world, which he did not disclose to them his secret, and his opponent could not gain from him as long as he was among those So I went back to this nasheed to settle it and read what lies in it anew that no one else had experienced, so the nasheed became a sob once, a cry a second time, a third rebellion, a protest, harshness, and patience to achieve the goal. He sought and relied on God.</p> عوريب كاظم مجيسر Copyright (c) 2022 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 209 225 The methodology of Quranic citation in the linguistic grammatical lesson Explanation of Diwan Al-Hassam for Al-Marzouqi as an example <p>The explanations are linguistic boundaries, structures, and styles of Arabic poetry that found their way in the hands of linguists, critics, and grammarians. Until they demolished its building in order to rearrange it with authentic Arabic styles, known to the world's linguists only in the last century; While its features were drawn by Ibn al-Anbari with religious, historical and psychological trends, and it reached the peak of its maturity in the hands of al-Marzouqi by constructing words and meanings of readings and inclinations and the juxtaposition of words to generate new meanings, as well as the departure of compositions from grammatical analogy in accordance with the habit of eloquent Arab poets in borrowing buildings for meanings; The measure of the eloquence of all of this is based on the words of the Qur’an.<br>It is one of the peaks of the grammatical lessons that broke the stagnation and dryness of the rule with the delicacy of poetic taste in its meanings that included all the structures of the language.</p> أ.م.د.عذراء محمد راغب التميمي Copyright (c) 2022 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 225 253 The impact of the question method on the achievement of third-grade female students at the Teachers Preparation Institute in the subject of the Holy Quran <p>The current research aims to know the effect of using the method of questioning on the achievement of the third grade students in the Institute for the Preparation of Female Teachers in the subject of the Holy Quran.<br>The limits of the current research included a sample of third-grade female students at the Teachers Preparation Institute / Al-Bayaa Al-Sabahi in the second semester of the academic year 2013-2014. The subject of the study was a number of texts from Surat Al-Baqara on what is included in the prescribed curriculum.<br>In the second chapter, the researcher dealt with a theoretical framework entitled The Question in the Holy Qur’an, in which she talked about the Qur’an asking questions and the intent behind that, and how it proves faith truths and strengthens their consolidation in the hearts of people. connection.</p> م.د. نغم محمود عبد Copyright (c) 2022 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 253 285 Elements of building the Quranic surah according to Dr. Mahmoud Al-Bustani A study through his constructivist interpretation <p>In this research, the researcher intended to study the constructive elements of the blessed Qur'anic surah through the constructive interpretation approach adopted by Al-Bustani - may God have mercy on him -.<br>And the juiciness of the facts that the researcher came out with is that the Qur’anic surah with d. Bustani was built from eight elements: the intellectual element, the objective element, the moral element, the visual element, the verbal element, the rhythmic element, the formal element, and the structural element.<br>These elements for him - may God have mercy on him - are the same as the elements for building a literary text, since both texts (the Qur’anic surah and the literary text) - from his point of view - remain subject to these elements in general, but he views the surah as a unique and distinct literary form that surpasses others. Other literary structures.</p> م . م . شيماء مهدي منصور Copyright (c) 2022 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 285 305 Words of blessing in the Holy Quran <p>This research deals with the term (barak) in dictionaries, interpretations, and derivatives of this term in the Holy Qur’an and the noble Prophet’s Sunnah. The Qur’anic interpretations of these derivatives are presented. And the importance of blessing for man. The research sheds light on the sources of blessing and the reasons for its demise, as well as some blessed times and blessed places.</p> عبد الرزاق حسين صالح Copyright (c) 2022 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 305 321 Some methodological formulas in the book "The Ministers and the Book" Al-Jahshiari (d. 331 AH) <p>From the foregoing, we conclude that this study took its importance in the field of studying the methodology of resources through the systematic formulation of some narrations using some words and expressions to indicate that. Sometimes he relies on the same approach as the historians who preceded him, and sometimes he deviates from that approach, as he relies on direct quotation of texts, or he varies in his approach in mentioning the name of the author and his owner, and he tries to deal with the novel on the basis of diversifying its authority. He dealt with the narrations that he quoted from his sheikhs, using the terms of the hadith scholars in that regard.</p> أ.د.فاطمة زبار عنيزان Copyright (c) 2022 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 321 337 The Indian presence during the era of the Omani Empire in East Africa 1806-1870 <p>The Sultanate of Oman is an important part of the Arabian Gulf region, by virtue of its unique geographical location, as it represents the southeastern region of the Arabian Peninsula, which made it possess distinguished immunity due to the natural properties surrounding it, as it is surrounded from the north, east and west by the Arabian Gulf, the Gulf of Oman and the Arabian Sea, but from the west it is bordered by sand Which is a natural extension of the Empty Quarter desert, and thus Oman has become confined between two seas, the watery sea and the sandy sea.<br>This geographical nature of Oman greatly affected its inhabitants, so they took to the sea and were known for being skilled navigators, and its inhabitants emerged greatly in the maritime trade between the Arabian Gulf region and between Southeast Asia, China, India and East Africa since the beginning of the eighth century AD.</p> أ. م. د. حسين علي فليح Copyright (c) 2022 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 337 373 The British-Italian colonial conflict in the Mediterranean and Red Bahrain 1936-1938 <p>By the end of World War I in 1918 AD, Britain would have emerged victorious from the war, but it was suffering from a very difficult economic and financial crisis, and a tired army that needed rehabilitation. And almost destroyed naval forces, and lost two-thirds of its ships and equipment, and destroyed cities, roads and ruined bridges, and despite that, it had extended its control over its colonies in the Indian subcontinent, the Arabian Gulf, Persia, Iraq, Palestine, Transjordan, Aden, Bab al-Mandab Strait, parts of Somalia, the Red Sea, and Egypt Sudan, Cyprus, Crete, and the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea, and on large parts of its coasts and islands, and the coasts of the Red Sea, the Gulf of Aden, the Indian Ocean, and the Arabian Gulf (1).</p> أ. م. عصام خليل محمد إبراهيم الصالحي Copyright (c) 2022 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 373 393 The American University of Beirut, its founding idea and the system of appointing its presidents and professors <p>This research consists of two chapters, the first discussing the establishment of the American University in Beirut in 1866 and the role of American missionaries and their efforts to obtain financial and moral support from senior businessmen in Washington and Britain.<br>As for the second research, it dealt with the system of appointing university presidents and professors, which was carried out according to several conditions, perhaps the most prominent of which is competence and scientific production. It is remarkable that most of the university presidents completed their university studies in theology. In addition to the fact that university presidents remained in office for a long time, the matter Which enabled them to establish solid university rules and traditions.</p> م.م. منار عبد المجيد عبد الكريم Copyright (c) 2022 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 393 409 Geomorphological processes leading to the spread of desertification <p>At the beginning of the year 1989 AD, the depletion of the ozone layer was considered the greatest threat to the environment, and in the meantime, the danger of desertification was forgotten because the first problem seemed more terrifying and dangerous than the second, and it had a new and unfamiliar impact.<br>Desertification is defined as ... the decline in soil quality and, consequently, in its productive potential. This phenomenon is not new to man, as our planet has known it for thousands of years, but interest in it has begun to grow more due to the intensification of its impact on the existence of man and on his productive land.</p> أ.م. د. قاسم يوسف الشمري Copyright (c) 2022 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 409 437 The geographical location of the Strait of Hormuz and its impact on international policy-making <p>The Strait of Hormuz is one of the most important straits and waterways in the world, as it connects the Arabian Gulf on the one hand, and the Gulf of Oman, the Arabian Sea, and the Indian Ocean on the other. Therefore, it is considered the only sea outlet for countries bordering the Arabian Gulf only, such as Iraq, Kuwait, Bahrain, and Qatar. It is also the port President of each of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, which overlooks the Gulf in the east and the Red Sea in the west, and of the United Arab Emirates, which overlooks the Arabian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and the Sultanate of Oman, which overlooks the Arabian Gulf, the Gulf of Oman, and the Arabian Sea, and Iran, which overlooks the Arabian Gulf, the Gulf of Oman, and the Arabian Sea .<br>Its strategic importance stems from its being a transit point for 35 to 40% of the world's seaborne oil.</p> أ. م. د حسين وحيد عزيز الكعبي Copyright (c) 2022 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 437 469 The policies of the major powers in the late nineteenth century and their impact in creating an atmosphere of war <p>A number of historical studies dealt with important aspects of the history of the Ottoman Empire during the last half century of its life, which was full of important pivotal changes at the Ottoman and international levels. The rule of Sultan Abdul Hamid II, which began in the early years of that era and lasted thirty-three years, witnessed radical transformations. In the structure of the Ottoman Empire and its internal and external policies. And the rule of the Unionists, which followed it, knew such transformations, the most prominent of which was the policies of democratic transformation of the state and the system of government that prevailed in it, and the alliance with Germany, the emerging global power at the level of the Ottoman foreign policy.</p> Zainab Abdul Muttalib Taher Copyright (c) 2022 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 469 509 The news of the Twelver Salafism <p>The student of the history of Islamic jurisprudence in general and the jurisprudence of the Twelver Shiites in particular must take a pause for contemplation in front of the news from the Twelver Shiites. Fundamentalists put it to derive the legal ruling such as unanimity, reason and analogy.</p> د. رحيم خلف عكله Copyright (c) 2022 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 509 523 The evolution of astronomy In Iraq during the Abbasid era <p>Astronomy was one of the most closely related sciences to the Islamic cultural and social reality. Rather, it gained a certain specificity thanks to its treatment of religious issues of concern to Muslims anywhere at that historical stage. We find that determining the direction of the Qiblah (Makkah Al-Mukarramah) from several different points on the surface of the earth and the classification of astronomical tables For the timing of prayer with all these local issues</p> م.م علي نايف مجيد م.د. رعد يونس عباس Copyright (c) 2022 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 533 557 Education in Meiji Japan 1868-1912 (historical study) <p>Due to the importance of education in the aspects of life, past and present, I chose to research this subject because of its great importance in the progress of human societies in general and the Japanese in particular, given the great progress achieved by Japan in all areas of life, surpassing many countries in the world. This is thanks to education first and the persistence of the Japanese personality to reach That progress, and the Meiji era is the beginning of wide openness to Western culture, so I will deal with it in this research, if the original heritage of Japanese civilization was combined with the incoming culture, which produced a new culture for Japan. Mori Arinori and Fukuza Yukinshi in Education in Japan, and then Epilogue.</p> د. ميسون عباس حسين Copyright (c) 2022 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 557 577 The role of expatriates in intellectual and political life in Najaf in the twentieth century <p>For nearly a thousand years, the city of Najaf has been a pioneering scientific center that students of religious sciences from all over the world come to to study in its scientific seminary. And they grew up in it until they became like its children, and the city of Najaf, which has a religious and cultural character, has a charm and influence even on the incoming students who are in the age of youth and maturity. And the original inhabitants of Najaf came the idea of ​​research.</p> م. صالح عباس ناصر الطائي Copyright (c) 2022 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 577 601 Soil suitability for autumnal sugar beet cultivation in the northern island irrigation project using geographic information systems <p>The research aims to evaluate and classify the suitability of current and future soil characteristics for autumn sugar beet cultivation in the North Island Irrigation Project, using geographic information systems. Land suitability is the suitability of a specific area of ​​land for a specific use. As for the classification of land suitability, it is the evaluation and grouping of specific areas of land that are similar in their suitability for a specific use. To determine the best or suitable location for autumn sugar beet cultivation, which makes an optimal investment of land resources in a sustainable manner. By building spatial and descriptive databases (data bank), through a survey and inventory of land resources, land characteristics, requirements and determinants for sugar beet cultivation in the study area,</p> د. دلال حسن كاظم Copyright (c) 2022 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 601 621 Visual teaching strategies and Arabic language <p>The majority of modern linguists agree that the function of language is expression, communication, communication, or understanding. (Youssef, 1990, p. 27).<br>Accordingly, expression is one of the important goals of language study and is a priority in learning it. (Al-Waqfi, 2009, p. 450).<br>Despite its importance, it did not take its place within the curricula of the Arabic language and it constitutes linguistic practices in it, and the weakness of students in it and their inability to express seems to be a national problem and is evident in the thinness of their writings and their inability to understand the prescribed topics, and their presentation of weak and inconsistent arguments, and their expression in a language other than Accurate, and this weakness may be attributed to our educational system and its methods that focus on indoctrination and memorization, which are rarely exposed to the functional side of the crack in the life of the learner.<br>And this was confirmed by Al-Hashemi, saying:</p> أ.م.د. ميسون علي جواد م. عناية يوسف حمزة Copyright (c) 2022 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 621 649 Blind people accept their disability <p>Individuals with visual impairments face extreme difficulties in practicing their life behaviors, due to the nature of their weak relationship with society, as a result of the loss of the sensory medium that is the most important basis for dealing with visual stimuli and acquiring knowledge, which is the sense of sight, which pushes them to make great efforts and exposes them to nervous stress and psychological tension, as well as Feelings of insecurity and confusion about life situations in general (Al-Quraiti, 1996: 201).<br>Acquiring the necessary social skills to achieve independence and a sense of self-sufficiency is not as required for the blind, due to their limited ability to move, and their inability to observe the behavior of others.</p> عمار برير صالح Copyright (c) 2022 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 649 681 Collective terror and its relationship to fear of social contact <p>Iraq passed and is still going through exceptional circumstances and events that ravaged its human and social structure.<br>That researchers study the various phenomena that have an impact on Iraqi society rests with everyone, so the current study comes as a scientific attempt to identify the nature of the relationship between collective terror and fear of social contact among state employees. The study has reached the following results:<br>1- The research sample has a sense of collective terror<br>2- There are no statistically significant differences in collective terror among the sample according to gender (male-female).<br>3- The research sample has a fear of social contact that is higher than the hypothetical mean of the scale.<br>4- There are no statistically significant differences in the fear of social contact according to gender (male - female).<br>5- There is a relationship between collective terror and fear of social contact<br>Then conclude a research with recommendations and proposals.</p> م.م زلزلة محمود عباس Copyright (c) 2022 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 681 709 Psychological Domestic Violence against Woman as Reflected in Susan Glaspell’s Trifles <p>Susan Glaspell (1876-1948) was one of the pioneering American female playwrights who evolved into visibility at the end of the 19<sup>th</sup> century and the beginning of the twentieth. She had celebrated in her personal and literary life the advent of the new woman striving to fulfill her dreams in a hostile and intensive world. Glaspell based her first dramatic play, <em>Trifles</em>, on an actual murder case she covered while working as a journalist.<sup>1</sup> She may write her piece<em>, Trifles</em>, as an explanation for why a woman may murder her husband. In her attempt to explain, Glaspell created the character of Minnie Wright who is oppressed by her husband to the extreme. To fully free herself, Minnie escapes by way of strangling her husband to death. Thematically speaking, Glaspell’s <em>Trifles</em> handles women’s issues in a time where women like Minnie Wright were often forced to remain with “either father or husband just to have a roof over their heads. The life of a solitary woman without male protection was not an attractive option.”<sup>2</sup></p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; In <em>Trifles</em>, the troubled marriage of the Wrights has culminated in Minnie Wright strangling her husband, John. The men vainly look for signs of violent rage, but the women, with growing empathy, are able to recognize the signs of quiet desperation under which many women of their time were forced to live. Glaspell contrasts male and female perspectives throughout the play, and engages the audiences’ sympathy firmly on the side of the women. Susan C. W. Abbotson indicates that “We are asked to witness Mrs. Wright’s life rather than Mr. Wright’s death, and we are shown that the true ‘crime’ has been the way she was being subjugated and ‘destroyed’ by her marriage.”<sup>3</sup> Mr. Wright sees women as a submissive group whose concerns hold</p> Asst. Instructor: Basaad Maher Mhayyal Copyright (c) 2022 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 709 729 The Use of Synecdoche in Social Speech Interaction <p>Synecdoche is a figure of speech in which a part is used to represent the whole and vice versa (Nordquist;2014:1) or it is identified as substituting a more inclusive term for less inclusive&nbsp; one or vice versa such as <strong>fireside</strong>,<strong> hearth</strong>-refer to a part of the fire place.</p> <p>The present paper deals with the problem of how to understand the true meaning of&nbsp; synecdoche in the language of the society and how the native speakers use synecdoche in their speech and do they use it just in casual conversation or informal conversation?</p> <p>The paper concludes that people and writers, employ synecdoche in their speech by giving common ideas and objects deeper meanings and thus draw readers' attention. Furthermore , synecdoche is used in different fields of life&nbsp; such as social, political, educational etc..</p> <p>Finally ,Synecdoche ,like any other figure of speech, when it is used appropriately it adds a distinct color to words making them appear vivid .To insert this “life “ factor&nbsp; to literary, political, educational as well as casual conversation. Speakers and writers describe things in new ideas to enable speakers of English language to understand the true meaning of the used words.</p> Assi Instructor. Ghufraan Abdul-Hameed Ali Copyright (c) 2022 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 729 741 Identifying the multiple intelligences of Iraqi EFL Instructors at college level <p>Teachers should have acceptable ratios of multiple intelligences. Knowing their most dominate intelligence, teachers will be capable of understanding and considering the multiple intelligences of their students. Accordingly, they will be able to use Gardner’s theory as an effective approach of teaching for all kinds of learners and not limited to a specific type of students especially those who have high ratios of verbal-linguistic and logic-mathematical intelligences</p> Farah Muayad Isaa Copyright (c) 2022 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 741 769 The Effect of Using Concept Mapping as a Pre-Writing Stage Strategy on Iraqi EFL College Students’ Achievement in Essay Writing <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; This study is an attempt to investigate the effect of using concept mapping as a prewriting strategy on Iraqi EFL college students’ achievement in essay writing.&nbsp; To fulfill the aims of the study, the researcher has adopted two null hypotheses. The first states that there is no statistically significant difference between the achievement mean scores of the students who are taught essay writing through concept mapping as a pre-writing strategy and those who are taught essay writing through the conventional way. The second hypothesis states that there is no statistically significant difference between the experimental group students’ achievement mean scores in the organization, content and quality of expressions in the pre and posttests. To achieve the aim of the study, a ten-week experiment was conducted using the pretest-posttest non-equivalent groups design. Two groups of 105 students were selected from the population of third year students/College of Education for Women-Department of English during the academic year (2013-2014). One group was selected as the experimental group (namely section B) and another group was selected as the control group (namely section C). Both students of the experimental and control groups were exposed to pre and posttests. Using the t-test for two independent samples, it is found that there is a statistically significant difference in favour of the experimental group; whereas, by using t-test for two dependent samples, it is found out that there is a significant development in the experimental group students’ achievement in organization, content and style and quality of expression. This indicates that using concept mapping as a prewriting strategy is more effective than the presentation- practice- production teaching or the Lecture Method teaching. Conclusions, recommendations and suggestions for further studies are put forward.</p> Narmeen Mahmood Muhammad Copyright (c) 2022 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 769 797 لا سوفرانس هومين دانس لا ميزون دو برجر دي فيني Recherche présentée على قدم المساواة: <p>ألفريد دي فيني هو أحد منشئي المدرسة الرومانسية. شاعر وفيلسوف يتميز بأصالة النوع الشعري الذي جلب الشعر الفرنسي. يكمن أسلوبه في التعبير عن الفكر والفلسفة الإنسانية في إطار ملحمي ودرامي. تكشف تحفته القدر عن نفسه كمجموعة متنوعة من المواضيع: (المثالية ، الطبيعة ، الدين ، المرأة ، التشاؤم ، المعاناة). كل هذه المواضيع ذات صلة بالرؤية الفلسفية للشاعر التي نتج التشاؤم عنها من العزلة المؤلمة للشاعر.<br>كان الشاعر قادرًا على تطوير أفكار تعبر عن معاناة الإنسانية وحالة الإنسان ؛ يبدو أن هذه الرؤية الفلسفية وسيلة جديدة للتعبير تسمح له بتحقيق هذا النوع من الشعر.<br>أصبحت المعاناة التي تم الكشف عنها في هذه الرؤية مصدرًا لـ Vigny وشرطًا أساسيًا للإلهام الشعري في نفس الوقت. هذه المعاناة هي قوة الإنسان وثباته. الرجل ، لأن Vigny أمام مصير مأساوي ؛ إنه يمثل كرامته وقوته ، لكن ضعفه يجعله ضحية لمصير مأساوي</p> AHMED SHAKER GHANI Copyright (c) 2022 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 797 797 Criterios de la traducción ideal <p>That all languages, including Spanish and Arabic characterized its proximity to a large amount of complexity and language difficulties and uses grammatical wrong and mystery that might get in, and applies perfectly this case on the Spanish language, especially when we are translated into Arabic and vice versa, which revolves discussed this on a perfect translation into Arabic language through a good understanding and knowledge of language differences, which require a large and challenging issue in preparation for a broad and ability and proficiency to be reckoned with by the translator. That it should be at least proficiency in two languages and two movable ones and target language, because the translation process is not an easy task or easy as thinking is believed by many, it is quite the contrary, it is the process of a very difficult and complex, it does not consist of the conversion and transfer process a word or phrase or a particular phrase from one language to another only because if we accept this concept will be able to anyone that opens the book dictionary, or to preserve a set of words and become a translator in this case, while the truth is not quite you</p> Mohamad Dakhil Diab Ammar Ibrahim Fattah Copyright (c) 2022 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 797 797 The inhibitory effect of Saccharomyces cereviisiiae filtrates on the growth of biofilm-forming Staphylococcus aureus <p>The study included an investigation of the inhibitory ability of yeast isolates<br>6 p.a. (obtained from commercial sources<br>imported) on the growth of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from diseased cases<br>different, as it was possible to obtain (01) isolates of the bacterium A. Sa’az {Hartmeh: K.<br>All these isolates were subjected to culture, microscopic and biochemical examinations and were diagnosed<br>using the 714662 system. The ability of the isolates to form a biofilm was tested using<br>Two methods are the center of the solid Congo Red ( ) APM and<br>Accurate calibration dishes method (17) 0 L Mohan, has<br>The results showed that the second method was the most sensitive in investigating membrane formation<br>biofilm, where (60%) of the isolates showed their ability to form a biofilm in a manner<br>(H) and (83.3%) by the method of (7) and the other isolates did not produce a biofilm.<br>Regarding the sensitivity test, these isolates showed variation in their resistance to antibiotics<br>The biosynthesis is under study, with the exception of the similarity of all isolates in their resistance to pathogenesis<br>L and 21007710, with a percentage of 100%, and its sensitivity is 100% for an antidote.</p> م . د . فاطمة رمضان عبدل Copyright (c) 2015 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 1 22 Chemical analysis of fenugreek plant ( Trigonlla foenum-graecum L. ) Sprayed with nitrogen and zinc <p>A vital experiment was carried out during the winter season 2010-2011 in the greenhouse belonging to the<br>Department of Life Sciences/College of Education for Pure Sciences/University of Baghdad, with the aim of determining plant response<br>Fenugreek for some paper transactions with mineral elements (nitrogen and zinc) and its effect on<br>The content of some elements (M, K, E©, P1) and the concentration of carbohydrates. Experiment included<br>A study of the effect of three concentrations of each of the nitrogen fertilizer is 0,1000,2000 mg/l<br>Zinc sulfate fertilizer is 50.25.0 mg/L within the global experimental system according to the design<br>Randomized complete sections with three replications. The studied data were analyzed statistically<br>For the above design, the averages of the treatments were compared based on the least significant difference test<br>at a significant level of 5%. The results of the study showed the following: The addition of foliar fertilizer<br>nitrogenous lead to a significant increase, as the concentration gave 2000 mg / liter values for the content<br>The above elements amounted to 21.55, 48.03, 46.86, 10.73, 54.54 mg / g, respectively, and a concentration of<br>Carbohydrates% 9.28, and the addition of foliar fertilizer with zinc sulfate had a significant effect.</p> عباس جاسم حسين الساعدي حسن عبد الرزاق علي السعدي Copyright (c) 2015 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 21 34 The external appearance of the type Cercopis vulnerata (Rossi, 1807) (Homoptera: Cercopidae) in Iraq <p>The current study provides a description of the species 067418/14 ¡sau from the family of hoppy frogs.<br>And with similar wings rank 11001001618 The study has shown a detailed description<br>and illustrative forms of the characteristics of the external appearance, especially the male and female sexes; It has also been recorded<br>Place and date of collection for this species. This species is a new record of the Iraqi insect group. Prepare<br>This species is a new record of the Iraqi insect group.<br>Keywords: order Homoptera; Frogs, family, genus Ymba.<br>Introduction</p> <p>The species of the genus (1807, c) m: f) are distinguished as:<br>It contains the largest number of basic characteristics of the species of the family, which is the fact that it contains tentacles inside<br>A cavity located on the side of the face and near the inner edge of the eye. It consists of four joints, namely<br>The base has two short and wide pieces.</p> <p>The head is generally triangular in shape, the carapace is strong and striated, and the eyes are small and lateral<br>The two simple eyes are at the back of the head. The chest is broader than the head<br>Smooth edges with an angular shape.</p> <p>belly short; The wing is circular, closed and particularly solitary with spots of various shapes, but<br>red; The front legs are short and the hind legs are longer and have spines<br>Or more like claws, the number of which is 6, and the length is the result of the length of the leg 11518.</p> حلا تايه الحسناوي حسن سعيد الأسدي Copyright (c) 2015 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 33 41 Effect of orange peel extract Industrial lemon is growing and yielding Barley plant <p>A field experiment was conducted in the botanical garden of the Department of Life Sciences in the College of Education for Science<br>Pure / Ibn Al-Haytham; University of Baghdad during the growing season (2012-2013) in order to study the effect of<br>Industrial orange and lemon peel extracts at concentrations 10 and 9670 in growth and yield<br>barley plant 70/8072 7074000700. The results showed a significant increase in plant height and<br>Number of leaves, number of prunings, leaf area, absolute growth rate, and growth rate<br>Relative, area and weight of the flag paper, specific weight and specific area of the flag paper and<br>The length and density of the spike weight, the weight of the spike grain, the number and weight of the spikes, the length of the shaft, and<br>Yield index, grain yield density, grain weight, total plant weight, and weight<br>0 seeds and migration coefficient for all treatments compared to control plants.</p> ا.م.د.وفاق امجد القيسي م.ايمان حسين الحياني Copyright (c) 2015 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 41 57 The influence of phosphate rock levels Agricultural sulfur is growing And the yield of the beans <p>An experiment was carried out in the wooden canopy at the University of Baghdad - College of Agriculture - Abu Dhabi<br>Gharib - Department of Soil Sciences and Water Resources to study the response of the bean crop to rock<br>Phosphate and agricultural sulfur and choosing the best combination between phosphate rock and sulfur<br>Agricultural crop growth. Phosphate rock was added at levels (0, 1000 and 2000).<br>kg m. e 'and agricultural sulfur (0, 1500 and 3000) kg 5. e 'at the end of the season<br>Plant height, number of branches per plant, number of seeds per pod and seed yield were calculated<br>for one plant and the dry matter weight of the vegetative part. The results showed: the rock increased<br>Phosphate was significantly increased in plant height, number of branches, number and yield of seeds, and material weight<br>dryness of the vegetative part and the level of 2000 kg m.ha "is the best as the effect of addition<br>Agricultural sulfur significantly increased the above-mentioned traits, and the level was 3000 kg K<br>"e" is the best; as for the effect of the overlap between them, the level was (2000 kg m.ha.w<br>0 kg 5 .H ') is the best in all qualities as it gave the highest yield and the highest number of<br>Branches, seeds and dry matter 0 We conclude from this study the possibility of using phosphate rock<br>Instead of manufactured phosphate fertilizers that are expensive because they are cheaper and available in Iraq<br>It is a primary raw material for phosphate fertilizers.</p> بشرى محمود البطاوي Copyright (c) 2015 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 57 70 Isolation of benthic invertebrates in the Lesser Zab. Alton Bridge / northern Iraq <p>In a study of the benthic invertebrate community in the Lesser Zab, Alton Kupri 1 North region<br>Iraq, associated with the sedge plant 67/7775 6700/7145, the isolation results showed: 23 individuals from<br>Nematodes of Genus 7700/7.<br>,. 4, l, nh. 1, addition<br>For suspension. 50 10550/00707000 with numbers 23, 7, 7, 4, 5, 35, respectively. I showed<br>The results showed that the number of arthropods of the genera. 7715,. h,. n<br>They were: 95, 119, 21, respectively, and 19 individuals from Al-Nawaem, genus 4906750: 776/7,<br>The highest percentage was for. 0100) and less than a percentage of . ,<br>The results of relative abundance showed the dominance of the Arthropoda phylum, while the rest of the phylum were the races<br>Low abundance, the average hydrogen ion concentration (7.1 - 7.5) and degrees were recorded<br>The temperature was (16-191) degrees Celsius, while the average salinity concentration was (-.,462).<br>).,9 thousandths.</p> ناديا عماد الامين Copyright (c) 2015 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 69 76 Effect of the injectable anabolic steroid sustanon And sesame oil on enzyme levels Liver with histopathological changes in Male rats <p>The current study aimed to know the effect of injecting sustanon, which is one of the compounds<br>Anabolic steroids as well as sesame oil on some physiological functions in male liver<br>Rats, which included measuring the levels of liver enzymes (8, 567, 5607), while<br>The histopathological study included histopathological changes caused by sustanon<br>and sesame oil in rat livers.</p> <p>The experimental animals included 25 male rats of the type L-P<br>Which was divided into five additional groups (5018:0005) equally. groups included<br>negative control (feed and water); The second group was a positive control (1 ml / kg of weight<br>The body sesame oil in a low dose (the third group, positive control) 2 ml / kg<br>Body weight: high dose sesame oil (group IV sustanon) 10 mg/kg<br>of body weight (low dose); Fifth group Sustanon (20 mg / kg of<br>body weight (high dose). Animal groups were injected weekly for 6 weeks with stanon<br>And sesame oil intramuscularly, then killed at the end of the sixth week. The results showed a significant increase<br>(0&gt;0.05) in the levels of liver enzymes [57,8](, 607k) in the groups.<br>injected with Stanon (10 and 20 mg / kg of body weight). While my group showed</p> علي شلش سلطان رشا عبد الامير عبد اللطيف Copyright (c) 2015 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 77 92 Effect of the herbicide clifosit on population Azotobacter chroococcum and Rhizobium leguminosarum <p>The results showed the effect of the weed killer clifosit at the recommended dose and weakly<br>The recommended dose in the population of Bacterium 077002020007077./ and that the effect depended<br>on the type of bacteria, the concentration of the pesticide, and the time period after treatment. No exterminator occurred<br>Clayphosate at the recommended dose had a significant effect on the bacterial population after 3 and 60 days<br>days of treatment as it reached 105 x 80 CFU / 1 gm soil 83 x 01<br>colony-forming unit/1g of soil, while causing a significant reduction in the population of bacteria<br>twice the recommended dose after 3 days and 60 days of treatment, as it reached 61 x 01<br>CFU / 1g and 56 x 105 CFU / 1g soil<br>Two comparisons to the control treatment, which recorded 105 x 81 CFU/1g.<br>soil and 85 CFU / 1 gm soil, respectively. The results showed that<br>Cliphosate showed a significant effect on the population of bacteria. e0sun bad! m after<br>3 days and 60 days of treatment as it recorded 01" x 13 CFU / 1g<br>Soil 81 CFU / 1 gm soil, while the double dose was induced</p> زيد رعد عباس رياض عباس عبد الجبار Copyright (c) 2015 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 93 101 use of some therapeutic alternatives Inhibiting the growth of Proteus mirabilis Causing urinary tract infections <p>The current study included testing the natural life efficacy of alcoholic tinctures and<br>Tincture of vinegar and aqueous extracts of fresh mint leaves as well as mint oil<br>And a comparison of its effectiveness with some therapeutic organisms, such as lactic acid bacteria 06140 (01::1:45).<br>] And yeast! twill to assess its inhibition capacity<br>Growth of bacteria 771077001115 7707215 isolated from urinary tract infections using the method<br>Disc spread. The results of the primary chemical diagnosis showed that the plant contained<br>Active ingredients such as alkaloids, phenols, tannins, glycosides and flavonoids<br>and coumarins in alcohol tincture and vinegar tincture with lower results in aqueous extract; And he has<br>The results of the study of the inhibitory efficacy of the extracts varied according to the type of the extract itself<br>And the difference of the tested microorganism, as it showed vinegar dye, vinegar alone, and alcohol dye<br>Higher efficacy in inhibiting bacterial growth than aqueous extract and peppermint oil; and scored<br>The highest inhibition rate was 29 mm, 26 mm »24 mm, respectively compared to the diameter of inhibition of bacteria<br>lactic acid and Saccharomyces yeast, as the highest inhibition zone was recorded at 6 mm and 3 mm on<br>respectively, which is less effective for the rate of inhibition of bacterial diameters using plant extracts.</p> زينة هاشم شهاب نور مهدي فاضل Copyright (c) 2015 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 101 112 Control of returns and risks Financial derivatives <p>Derivatives represent financial contracts related to items outside the budget and determine their value<br>Based on indicators or related tools. Therefore, the process of managing and controlling it<br>Its returns and the resulting risks are among the basic tasks of the owner or the one who makes the financial decision<br>(Bank; financial institution) This research came to try to answer how to control the<br>The returns of these derivatives and that this task has been addressed through three chapters and conclusions<br>And recommendations:<br>The first chapter deals with derivatives, their concept, types and management.<br>The second chapter deals with risk, its concept and types.<br>The third chapter - risk and return.</p> <p>Dealing with derivatives and managing them and achieving the required financial gain is done according to experience<br>And the efficiency of the decision-maker, so the process of qualifying this person and providing a database for him came in<br>Introduction to the things he needs to make the right decision.</p> ا. م. د قاسم هادي موسى م. م. محمد عبد اللطيف خطاب Copyright (c) 2015 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 113 144 The effect of using the Jigsaw strategy (Jigsaw) in the collection of physics Science processes for female students Intermediate first grade <p>The aim of the research is to identify the effect of the Jigsaw strategy (:118587) compared to the traditional method<br>In the collection of physics and science processes for the first intermediate grade students in Fatima High School<br>Al-Zahraa for girls affiliated to the General Directorate of Education in Anbar Governorate, from the four seasons<br>The first for the physics textbook from the first semester of the year 2014-2012, as it reached a sample<br>The research was (62) female students, with (31) for A-section and (21) for C-section, and the repeaters who were excluded<br>Statistically, for the purpose of ensuring parity, because they have more experience than their new colleagues<br>For the purpose of fixing the equivalence of the research groups, their reward was verified in the following variables<br>Chronological age in months, achievement in science for the sixth grade, and information<br>The previous study showed that the use of the strategy in teaching physics led to superiority<br>The experimental group over the control group in achievement and science processes.</p> م.م. سميرة عدنان ثرثار حسين القيسي Copyright (c) 2015 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 145 176 Detection of some metallic elements In aluminum utensils used in cooking food <p>In this research, commonly used aluminum utensils were selected from the local markets<br>In which distilled water was boiled and ions removed from it, and other utensils where distilled water was boiled<br>From which ions are removed, citric acid is added to it at a rate of 1 g / 2500 ml for several times.<br>ranged from 15 to 90 minutes; Then the percentage and quantity of some mineral elements were measured.<br>The obtained results showed the presence of a number of metallic elements in the boiled liquid<br>In the aluminum utensils under study, to which citric acid was added, while the liquid that was left was cleared<br>It was boiled with pyrex pots of metal elements; It also showed an increase in proportions<br>The presence of metallic elements that were detected by increasing the heating period with the presence of acid<br>They are iron, copper, cadmium and aluminum, but all samples were devoid of any element<br>Lead.</p> أ.م.د. رغد أكرم عزيز م. رحيم جعفر عزيز Copyright (c) 2015 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 177 185 The effect of error remedial teaching common in mathematics in achievement Science subject for third year students At the Teachers Training Institute <p>There is no doubt that the development of science in general depends on mathematics and be<br>Accompanying its development, as a result of the increasing reliance of science on mathematical methods<br>Detecting mathematical errors that affect students' achievement in science and addressing them<br>Importance of student success and progress in science.</p> <p>The current research aims to find out the effect of remedial teaching for common errors in mathematics<br>In the achievement of science, and in order to achieve this, the researcher put the following statistical hypothesis:<br>There are no statistically significant differences in the average achievement of female students in the science house<br>The experimental and control groups.</p> <p>The research sample consisted of (50) female students representing two divisions of the third grade at the Institute for Preparation<br>Parameters / Mansour.</p> <p>The researcher rewarded the students of the two groups in the variable of their achievement in mathematics for the year<br>Past, chronological age, monthly income, and parental education level.</p> <p>The researcher taught the two groups by herself over an entire semester<br>The remedial method for common errors in mathematics when teaching the experimental group<br>She used it when teaching the control group, and the researcher took science degrees at the end of the period</p> د. انعام ابراهيم عبد الرزاق Copyright (c) 2015 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 185 213 The oldest Bimaristan (hospital) teaching In Baghdad during the era of Adud al-Dawla <p>The emergence of the idea of ​​bimaristans (a) as places for the treatment of patients since the adoption of the courtyard of the Prophet’s Mosque<br>In Medina during the reign of the Prophet Muhammad, may God bless him and his family; And that in the Battle of the Trench as<br>The Messenger of God commanded to set up a tent in which to treat the wounded.<br>Which took to include doctors and pharmacists later and the Umayyad caliph Al-Walid bin<br>Abd al-Malik was the first bimaristan in Damascus in the year 702/880 AD to treat the blind and lepers.<br>As for the first Islamic bimaristan, it was built during the reign of Caliph Harun al-Rashid, when he called</p> <p>The caliph, the physician Jibril bin Bukhtishu`, to build a new bimaristan in Baghdad.</p> <p>Due to the importance of bimaristans and their development, we decided to study the humeral bimaristan because it is<br>In addition to being an educational bimaristan, it represents the treatment of patients in a way that is considered advanced in its time<br>Besides being a civilized manifestation of Islamic civilization that we must highlight<br>Its features, therefore, we proceeded to this study.<br>Founder of Bimaristan</p> <p>Abu al-Shuja' is considered a fana, Khusraw ibn al-Hasan ibn Buwayh al-Buwayhi al-Dulaimi, known as (Adad<br>State) for the year 272 A.H. - 44 A.H.) Tha.</p> <p>Of the flags of the sultans who had a prominent impact on the scientific movement in Baghdad in the century<br>the fourth Hijri; In order to study an aspect of the scientific movement in the era of his<br>scientists and approach them; This research was achieved, which required the scientific method to be limited<br>To pursue medical sciences. Which prompted me to choose this research; It is a sense of importance<br>The history of this cultural side" and the fact that the era of Adud al-Dawla did not obtain its right of research</p> م. د. موفق عليوي خضير Copyright (c) 2015 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 213 232 Design systems for decorations The Holy Quran ) An analytical study ( <p>This research is concerned with the study of (design systems for the decorations of the Holy Quran) study<br>analytical); It falls into four chapters; The first chapter is devoted to (statement of the problem of broadcasting<br>its importance and need for it; its purpose and limits; Define the terms mentioned in the title<br>and definition).</p> <p>The research problem has been summarized in answering the following question:<br>- What are the abstract design systems for Islamic decoration in the Holy Quran?</p> <p>The importance of the research was evident in the fact that it benefits those interested in decoration and Arabic calligraphy in one way<br>In particular, by looking at the results and conclusions of the research.</p> <p>The researcher found that there is an essential need for this study. It consists of a universe<br>The subject has not been studied in such detail; And the lack of Mknbtna boredom of these studies<br>Academic, which is concerned with the interior decorations in the Holy Quran</p> <p>The research has a comprehensive goal: to identify abstraction in the design systems of Islamic decorations<br>for the Holy Quran; With regard to the limits of the research, it was determined by studying b (models from the Holy Qur’an<br>It was implemented in the Arab and Islamic regions and included publishing houses according to the following:<br>(Iraq, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Iran, Turkey). From the year (0721 H - to H) 1398<br>The second chapter included the theoretical framework; And on previous studies 0 and eat</p> م. م. نورس عدي علي القريشي Copyright (c) 2015 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 234 268 The effect of a proposed training program on some Immune blood indicators and depressive state Among women aged (40 53) years - experimental research <p>In the last decade, individuals have become so weak and unwell that we cannot resist<br>Their bodies are exposed to diseases that make them feel irritable, and this is what stimulated them<br>researcher for the study; Where the study aimed to identify the impact of the proposed training program<br>In some immunological blood indicators (177130, 180, 1814) and depression in women of all ages<br>(25-40) years old, and the researcher used the experimental method for one group on a community<br>It consisted of (21) women who suffered from a deficiency in the level of immunological blood indicators<br>The study and after excluding the participants in the exploratory experiment and the non-regulars in the training<br>The final sample number has become (20) women, and the sample has been subjected to pre-tests in terms of filling in<br>Depression scale form, then the training program was implemented, which lasted (16) weeks<br>(2) Training units per week, as the duration of the training unit took (06) minutes, and after the end<br>In the training program, the researcher conducted post-tests, which included examining indicators<br>The immunological blood is being studied and the depression scale form is filled out, and after the results are collected, they are processed<br>Statistically, the researcher concluded that the proposed training program made a positive development in the<br>The improvement of the immunological indicators under study, and thus the improvement of the state of depression among a sample<br>Therefore, the researcher recommends adopting the application of the proposed training program when designing programs<br>Training and health because of its positive impact on improving the level of immune indicators and mood<br>Individuals, as well as encouragement to engage in various sports activities and physical fitness curricula<br>And health in sports and social institutions and clubs.</p> أ.م.د أغاريد سالم عبد الرضا Copyright (c) 2015 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 269 288 Fixed and variable in building systems for brand design <p>In the last decade, individuals have become so weak and unwell that we cannot resist<br>Their bodies are exposed to diseases that make them feel irritable, and this is what stimulated them<br>researcher for the study; Where the study aimed to identify the impact of the proposed training program<br>In some immunological blood indicators (177130, 180, 1814) and depression in women of all ages<br>(25-40) years old, and the researcher used the experimental method for one group on a community<br>It consisted of (21) women who suffered from a deficiency in the level of immunological blood indicators<br>The study and after excluding the participants in the exploratory experiment and the non-regulars in the training<br>The final sample number has become (20) women, and the sample has been subjected to pre-tests in terms of filling in<br>Depression scale form, then the training program was implemented, which lasted (16) weeks<br>(2) Training units per week, as the duration of the training unit took (06) minutes, and after the end<br>In the training program, the researcher conducted post-tests, which included examining indicators<br>The immunological blood is being studied and the depression scale form is filled out, and after the results are collected, they are processed<br>Statistically, the researcher concluded that the proposed training program made a positive development in the<br>The improvement of the immunological indicators under study, and thus the improvement of the state of depression among a sample<br>Therefore, the researcher recommends adopting the application of the proposed training program when designing programs<br>Training and health because of its positive impact on improving the level of immune indicators and mood<br>Individuals, as well as encouragement to engage in various sports activities and physical fitness curricula<br>And health in sports and social institutions and clubs.</p> أ.م.د أغاريد سالم عبد الرضا Copyright (c) 2015 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 289 314 The problem of overlapping curricula in criticism Cinematographic discourse <p>In the last decade, individuals have become so weak and unwell that we cannot resist<br>Their bodies are exposed to diseases that make them feel irritable, and this is what stimulated them<br>researcher for the study; Where the study aimed to identify the impact of the proposed training program<br>In some immunological blood indicators (177130, 180, 1814) and depression in women of all ages<br>(25-40) years old, and the researcher used the experimental method for one group on a community<br>It consisted of (21) women who suffered from a deficiency in the level of immunological blood indicators<br>The study and after excluding the participants in the exploratory experiment and the non-regulars in the training<br>The final sample number has become (20) women, and the sample has been subjected to pre-tests in terms of filling in<br>Depression scale form, then the training program was implemented, which lasted (16) weeks<br>(2) Training units per week, as the duration of the training unit took (06) minutes, and after the end<br>In the training program, the researcher conducted post-tests, which included examining indicators<br>The immunological blood is being studied and the depression scale form is filled out, and after the results are collected, they are processed<br>Statistically, the researcher concluded that the proposed training program made a positive development in the<br>The improvement of the immunological indicators under study, and thus the improvement of the state of depression among a sample<br>Therefore, the researcher recommends adopting the application of the proposed training program when designing programs<br>Training and health because of its positive impact on improving the level of immune indicators and mood<br>Individuals, as well as encouragement to engage in various sports activities and physical fitness curricula<br>And health in sports and social institutions and clubs.</p> أ.م.د أغاريد سالم عبد الرضا Copyright (c) 2015 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 313 348 Formal generation in structure Decorative gadflies <p>It is well known that Arab Islamic art is a decorative art, developed by Muslim artists<br>Where they turned away from drawing living beings for their hatred, especially in the early eras of Islam; Resulting<br>This leads to the use of various other decorations (geometric - botanical - linear text); embodied by decorating<br>The Holy Quran and Islamic architecture; Over time, these decorations evolved; So I got pregnant in structure<br>Its units and formal elements are a feature described by its Islamic decorative character.</p> <p>where wolves starve as a complement to calligraphic decorative work; As it formed its group<br>The integrated personality is an ornamental field, no matter how much it helped to beautify many applications on the level<br>Linear achievements that were artistically inspired and designed to meet aesthetic and taste goals.<br>This is based on the diversity and contrast arising in its design structure of vocabulary and elements<br>approved and even within the same direction, as well as the existence of different formal Tdladat represented<br>It has decorative flywheels, which are as follows:<br>1 Decorative botanical cotyledons (twig-sepals-flowering).<br>7" Geometric Flies.<br>3 double decorative cotyledons (vegetal-geometric).</p> <p>These formal reproductions were adopted in many applications, especially the linear paintings that are considered<br>This is our field of research.</p> <p>Where the researcher found that one of the difficulties he faces in this field is the great diversity<br>for implemented designs. In addition to their abundance, we will not exaggerate if we say that there are no models that can be<br>Rest assured that this is an adequate example of this diversity of decorative gadflies; meaning to be embodied in it<br>All the design possibilities are actually implemented, and in light of that, the researcher tried to focus his efforts on</p> أ. م. د. هاشم خضير حسن الحسيني Copyright (c) 2015 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 349 388 Technical characteristics of the Nasta'liq line <p>The Nasta'liq script is one of the Arabic scripts commonly used by calligraphers in the East<br>the Islamic world since the 8th century AH 14 AD); And used in the line of the Koran and official correspondence<br>and personal. This font was distinguished by its beauty stemming from the balance of its letters, the flow of its extensions, and the clarity<br>In his writing. And nastaliq in the language is a carved term consisting of two words (copy and comment) and indicate<br>These two words are on two types of calligraphy: Naskh and Ta’liq, which were spread and known in the period<br>Prior to the emergence of the Nastaliq line in the east of the Islamic world. From here, historians differed<br>And the Arab and foreign researchers who came in their studies to mention the Nasta'liq line on the original<br>From which this line was derived, some of them linked its origin to the Naskh line only; Some of them added a line to it<br>The commentary, and others agreed to call it the Persian script. Because they believe that this line was invented<br>It originated and developed in Persia. From here came the interest in preparing this research, as the research presented a problem<br>It was researched with the following question: (What are the technical characteristics of the Nasta'liq calligraphy), as the research aims to reveal<br>About these characteristics of the Iranian, Turkish and Pakistani schools of the century (8 AH-41 AD) because they are<br>The period in which the commentary line flourished and developed. “As for the first chapter, it dealt with the theoretical framework<br>Explaining the Ta'liq line and its origins, passing through the Nasta'liq line, in addition to its uses in copying<br>Religious and non-religious manuscripts. In the topic related to the characteristics of the Nasta'liq line, it was shown<br>Characteristics of letters for each school of Nastaliq calligraphy. As for the results of the search, it was<br>came out with:</p> <p>1. There were stylistic differences in the Nasta'liq calligraphy in terms of point measurement and shape</p> <p>It differs from one school to another.</p> م. منى كاظم عبد دواس Copyright (c) 2015 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 389 408 The aesthetics of the idea in the printed work according to the standards of creativity <p>The stages of the printed achievement depend on a group of intellectual and practical factors that include:</p> <p>It would formulate the design process according to scientific foundations that reflect the features of the formation or the accomplished<br>The typist.</p> <p>Access through these factors to find the expressive and creative idea in the same<br>Time is a very difficult matter; Creative ideas do not come randomly<br>Thoughtful and not prepared in advance, but it comes through reliance on knowledge storage<br>And the sense that goes along and keeps pace with the movement of scientific development in all fields.<br>On this basis, the aesthetic of the creative idea comes from the priorities that the designer undertakes<br>to reach the impact and direct response by the recipient; to avoid the problems that occur<br>The designer and the product of the design process.<br>Therefore, the existence of the creative aspect of the aesthetic idea in the art of design is an essential issue<br>A technical necessity and a foundation based on science and knowledge and stemming from deep intellectual premises;<br>The creativity process must have the ability to highlight the mental skills used in producing<br>Artistical works ; It is associated with the highest aesthetic values embodied through the apparent composition that<br>It is dialectically related to the value of creative thinking for a designer who possesses the experience and knowledge that<br>He achieves the work that must rise to the paths of renewal, originality, creativity and beauty; As if<br>Any printed work must resort to original ideas that enhance the value of the work<br>design and reach the pinnacle of creativity.</p> <p>Hence, the research problem emerged, which the researcher decided to pose in the form of the following question</p> إنعام حمدان محمود Copyright (c) 2015 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 409 420 Use of graphic design software in linear business processors <p>The idea of the design work depends on whatever its treatments are, whether in the intellectual or</p> <p>Job given and at all stages of completion on a set of foundations and methods<br>Structural elements that process text, digital graphic processing, depend on a set of<br>Software and digital processing tools, which positively affected the employment of those<br>Treatments to clarify the visual semantic and aesthetic dimension consistent with the design idea<br>In addition to that, the enhancements granted by these processors to enrich the linear visual achievement<br>The processor digitizes the new readability or gives the text a new mosaic for multiple readings and not<br>One closed reading, according to the expression of (Julia Kristeva), who cared about the multi-reading of the text<br>Mosaic and considered it a mosaic of all colors. And the current research took upon itself the task of research<br>Investigating aspects of that; By organizing it according to four chapters; included<br>The first chapter includes the research problem that the researcher touched, and it is related to the field of linear painting treatment<br>in digital designs; He asked the following question as a problem for his research: What are the design treatments?<br>Using digital graphics programs in written works?<br>The importance of the research was determined by:<br>Developing conceptual awareness among workers in the field of digital graphic design.<br>What the digital software contributes to a new conceptual development for reading the written achievement on the</p> <p>The aesthetic and functional level, and giving linear achievements space for cross-fertilization and communication with</p> <p>Modern and contemporary global achievements.</p> <p>The search was determined by the following</p> أ.د. نصيف جاسم محمد صادق جعفر جابر الشكاكي Copyright (c) 2015 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 421 452 The effectiveness of cooperative learning in teaching Theatrical directing <p>The researcher presented this study in an attempt to establish a new strategy for teaching a subject<br>staging using collaborative learning; This study contained four chapters<br>It is as follows :<br>The first chapter: the methodological framework: it included the definition of the research problem, its importance and the need for it<br>In addition to the research objective and hypotheses; This chapter also permeates the limits of the research and its methodology as defined<br>The researcher came up with a set of terms for each of them with a procedural definition in line with the research procedures.<br>The second chapter came with the theoretical framework, which was divided into two sections, as follows<br>First: Cooperative Education: In this topic, the researcher dealt with the origins and concept of cooperative education<br>And its objectives and basic elements and the role of the teacher and the learner in cooperative learning 0 and steps<br>cooperative learning; As well as the difficulties facing the application of cooperative learning.<br>Second: Theatrical directing: In this topic, the researcher divided it into several axes<br>The first dealt with improvised and organized theatrical activities, and the second dealt with relationships<br>The director and the basic elements of theatrical directing in the third axis; and in the axis<br>The fourth dealt with the dramatic values; the executive steps of theatrical directing were<br>The last axis of this research. The researcher mentioned a group of studies that preceded the research<br>It dealt with one of the variables of this research, but it moved away from the goal of the research that the researcher wanted<br>Check it out by searching this.<br>At the end of this chapter, the researcher came up with a number of indicators that will be the basis on which to proceed<br>to build instructional design.</p> عامر سالم عبيد السلامي Copyright (c) 2015 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 453 486 Formal metaphor and the mechanism of its employment in Islamic ceramics <p>The process of artistic production assumes the borrowing of a wide range of plant and animal forms<br>As well as the imaginary forms that are formed by nature according to realistic formal relationships<br>Photographing it according to considerations that give its formal characteristics ideological, social and spiritual influences.</p> <p>The process of employing forms may adopt the mechanisms of formal metaphor and the mechanism of this transformation<br>Shapes in a way that allows rediscovering their expressive energy and the possibility of employing them within<br>An integrated intellectual system that is consistent with the intellectual reality and with the requirements of artistic production. Perhaps a metaphor<br>Shapes and their transformation to ensure their aesthetic use is what has become clear over a long period<br>From the artistic production, the idea of ​​modifying forms, especially the vegetable ones, was associated with the mechanisms of metaphor<br>Artistic formalism and with the technique of employing these forms within the hierarchy of artistic production by adopting a factor<br>The time that prepares different treatments for the form of the difference in the social and intellectual influence.</p> <p>The problem of the current study is based on the study of borrowing botanical forms and their use in<br>The implementation of ceramic dishes and formal processing mechanisms that show a range of products that<br>They vary in terms of the mechanism of transformation and metaphor, which produces a group of artistic styles<br>With different implementation methods and different places, which distinguished the ceramic productions from others<br>Which works within the prevailing intellectual system that distinguished ceramic productions in artistic production<br>Islam in general.</p> ء. أحمد شمس عطية Copyright (c) 2015 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 485 506 The aesthetic and functional dimensions of the movement and trend in design industrial product <p>The direction is an essential element of the structural elements that share with other elements<br>To shape the structure of the artwork in general and the industrial design in particular, as it comes overlapping<br>And in combination with other elements that alienate each of them with symbolic meanings, including the direction from here<br>We find that the designer's knowledge of these elements and their implications works to help him employ them in a service<br>The content of the industrial product From here came the research problem with the following questions<br>1- What does the movement of shapes cause in the content of the industrial product?<br>Is there a dialectical relationship between movement and direction?<br>*- What are the attractive forces that affect the eye of the recipient?<br>The research aimed to: reveal the aesthetic and functional dimensions of the mechanisms of operation<br>Movement and direction in industrial product design.<br>The research came out with several conclusions, the most important of which are:<br>1- The idea of designing the industrial product for sample models can be embodied in the movement of lines with<br>different directions<br>An industrial designer can include aesthetic features in a product through proper employment<br>For design elements such as line, color, texture, size, direction, etc. and group them</p> م.د. جاسم احمد زيدان Copyright (c) 2015 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 505 528 The one-dimensional aesthetic of the Arabic letter In contemporary Iraqi painting <p>The Arabic letter is of great importance in its use in the field of contemporary plastic arts<br>in general and modern Iraqi painting in particular. And as an urgent need in our daily life<br>And a language of understanding by transferring the Arab-Islamic civilization to other nations, and also as a bond<br>The basic and truth of this nation stemming from the authentic values of its ancient past and glorious heritage<br>In addition to being a national and artistic issue at the same time. Being an abstract form, we find that<br>Its use in contemporary plastic painting has varied among artists due to their multiple styles.<br>Where the use of the Arabic letter as one dimension in contemporary Iraqi drawing was not used<br>Outwardly decorative, it contained many concepts related to the personality of the Arab artist in general<br>The Iraqi artist in particular, with all its spiritual and heritage dimensions, is the link between the past<br>present and future; Drawing inspiration from the ancient past of our Arab and Islamic civilization with its roots<br>Sturdy and spreading.</p> طارق حبيب سعيد Copyright (c) 2015 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 529 560 Fundamentals of character building in drama Iraqi TV <p>The personality is a main axis on which the drama is based, as the tributary that moves from<br>Its path is the event and the dramatic conflict; The personality also took center stage in the studies<br>Psychological, social, literature and drama studies. Besides, personality is one of the values<br>The drama on which the maker of the artwork relies in the process of employing it within the visual work.<br>With the rest of the elements of the dramatic construction in order to serve as a focal point in the construction of the event and therefore we find<br>The dramatic work maker pays great attention in his interpretation of the dramatic character according to a constructive treatment<br>The dramatic character and its interaction with the rest of the elements according to a vision characterized by innovation in character building<br>Dramatism within the visual performer, therefore, many interpretations have been developed to understand the components<br>The dramatic character and its construction within the visual achievement.<br>The research problem and the need for it:</p> <p>The Iraqi TV drama witnessed a wide development in the technical and artistic fields<br>It has become a field adjacent to current scientific and technical concepts, rather than at the level of treatment<br>Directive only, the new writing of the television script has undergone multiple openings<br>It resulted in a lot of new experiences, and it formed the character in the TV drama<br>Contemporary is an active "axis" in the processes of building the audiovisual image by focusing on it<br>The dramatic act affecting the recipient; Through its transformations, growth and continuous development 0<br>It is her actions and behavior that generate the impression of her, and through her, she becomes active and influential<br>Its goal that it seeks to achieve, the personality is built through the consolidation of a group of foundations<br>Dramatic, social and psychological on the one hand, and ways to treat it on television on the one hand</p> م.م. سلوان بهاء كاظم موسى Copyright (c) 2015 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 561 592 The impact of the survey strategy on Teaching planning and colors <p>The educational process is an original activity aimed at stimulating the learner's motivation and facilitating learning<br>It includes a set of activities and decisions taken by (the teacher - the learner) in the situation<br>Education through attention to teaching methods and techniques and the organization of learning forms in the situation<br>An educational process through which learners interact for the purpose of achieving specific educational goals. It sure is<br>This is done through intentional design of the educational environment and its engineering (organization of educational experiences) in a manner<br>Specific so as to lead to the achievement of intended education for learners and under the supervision of the teacher.</p> <p>Therefore, physical and psychological conditions that help the learner to interact actively must be provided<br>With the components of the educational environment designed for the educational situation in order to provide educational experiences<br>The information, knowledge, technical skills, attitudes and values that he needs in proportion to his capabilities<br>And his preparations in educational ways and methods that contribute to his sensory perceptions of the information he acquires<br>educational situation and then help him how to process this information and the process of retrieving it<br>and employing them in new educational situations.</p> <p>Based on what we present, the researcher decided to establish her research problem by employing<br>Inquiry strategy (in an educational environment to organize information and methods of acquisition by the learner<br>And stored in his memory and methods of retrieval according to the requirements of the educational situation through<br>His abilities and readiness to accept educational experiences (knowledge and skill) related to drawing and statement<br>Its impact on the acquisition of technical skills and the enhancement of its positive role in how it is employed in achievement<br>His artistic work, such as perspective, still life, pictorial composition, artistic project.....and others.<br>The aim of the current research is to reveal (the inquiry strategy and its impact on teaching arts).<br>Therefore, the researcher set two sub-goals to achieve it</p> ليلى شويل حسين Copyright (c) 2015 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 593 624 The impact of a training curriculum in a deficiency style oxygen using a mask (Hypoxic) to develop some abilities Special physique of young handball players <p>The study aimed to prepare a training curriculum using hypoxia method using a mask<br>(Hypoxik) in accordance with the abilities of young players in handball and to identify its impact on<br>Developing some special physical abilities of young handball players; The two researchers used<br>The experimental method designed by the experimental and control group with pre and post test ©<br>On a sample of young players in the First Division Clubs League in Baghdad (for my club<br>Al-Jaish and Al-Karkh) for the sports season (2013-2014) and the capabilities of the distinctive force were determined<br>With the speed of the arms and legs, the transitional speed, the endurance of speed, and the preparation of a curriculum<br>My training using the hypoxic method using a hypoxic mask was applied to the group<br>Experimental (32) training units that were carried out during (8) weeks, at (4) training units, for a period of<br>Two months, and the results were processed after the post-tests, and the most important of them was that the training curriculum had a style<br>Lack of oxygen by using the (hypoxic) mask has a positive effect on developing the characteristic strength<br>With the speed of the arms and legs of the young handball players who trained with him; and outperform them<br>developing players who trained without him; And that the training curriculum method hypoxia<br>Using a hypoxic mask helped to improve the transitional speed and endurance of the two legs<br>young handball players who trained with it; And their superiority improves them in the players who<br>Practice without it.</p> أ.م.د. أنعام جليل أبراهيم م.م. علاء جاسم مخيلف Copyright (c) 2015 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 625 657 thinking strategies for activities Sports physical education among players Handball and volleyball players and basketball players <p>We find many players possess many physical, skillful and tactical capabilities, except<br>They cannot use and employ these abilities when participating in sports competitions<br>This is due to their lack of mental skills and abilities and their excitement alongside their other abilities ©<br>While others achieve the best sporting achievements thanks to their use and employment<br>their skills and mental abilities effectively and integratedly during sports competitions.<br>As for the research problem, the researcher found that most of the players cannot use the game<br>And employing their abilities when participating in sports competitions, as a result of their lack of<br>Mental skills and abilities and their stimulation in addition to their other abilities, which causes their inability<br>provide them with the required level.<br>The aim of the research is to identify the relationship between physical and educational sports activities<br>The mental skills of team players.<br>As for the research hypothesis, it is in the following question: What is the relationship of physical sports activities<br>educational skills with some mental skills for team players?<br>The researcher used the descriptive survey method. The research was carried out on a sample<br>They are chosen according to the intentional method. The researcher explained the methods and tools used<br>search. Scientific tests and measures used in the research are characterized by validity coefficients</p> سكينة شاكر حسن Copyright (c) 2015 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 657 689 The effect of visual compound exercises in the two methods Variable and random to develop accuracy and speed Motor response in some skills technical volleyball players <p>The study aimed to identify the effect of visual compound exercises in the two variable styles<br>And random to develop the accuracy and speed of motor response in some of the technical skills of football players<br>Volleyball for youth ages 16-181 (years old); Use the experimental method for its suitability to nature<br>search; The research sample consisted of the police club players and the third and adult football team<br>They have (0! players) divided into two groups, each group (10) players used<br>The first group (visual compound exercises with a variable exercise method), which is a group<br>The third Karkh breeding team, while the second group, the Police Club group, was used<br>(Visual composite exercises randomly styled); The program implementation period continued (10).<br>weeks, at the rate of three training units per week; These exercises were performed at the beginning of the section<br>the principal of the educational unit; After implementing the educational program, the researchers concluded that there is<br>A development occurred between the two groups in favor of the post-tests in the research tests; While<br>No significant differences were achieved between the two groups in the post tests.</p> أ.م.د مصطفى حسن عبد الكريم Copyright (c) 2015 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 689 708 Effect of resistance exercises (burdeners) in development Achievement level (022) m <p>The importance of research by using weights in speed training, one of which is effective (100 m), which<br>require a degree of speed that needs to develop strength and a percentage of endurance; So it was used<br>As one of the training tools for runners, it takes up space from the training units in a way that is compatible with it<br>It conflicts with the vocabulary of the training unit in order to be a catalyst in developing some traits<br>For runners, and the research problem is in developing college runners and their times by this means, as the researcher saw from<br>Weakness in their achievement and because of reliance on traditional methods of developing strength and improving strength<br>As a result, it leads to an improvement in the speed of completion. The study aimed to know the effect of using weights<br>on the runners of the College of Arts team in the event of running (100 m), and I assumed that there are significant differences<br>Statistics between the two tests (pre and post) and in favor of the post test in running (002) m;<br>For the selected runners of the Faculty of Arts, the researcher used the semi-arbitrary experimental method of this group<br>the one; The research sample included (5) elected runners from the College of Arts / University of Baghdad, for an event<br>(100) AD; for the academic year (4102/2013), representing the research community by (100%). As for the means<br>The statistics are: the arithmetic mean; the mediator. standard deviation Torsion Modulus»» Test(7)<br>For associated samples, I concluded that the use of this type of training is suitable for runners at the beginning<br>Phase special preparation recommended using this type of weights for other parts of the body<br>Like the arms to develop the swing, in addition to other types of weights, such as the sand weighted chest.</p> وصال صبيح كريم Copyright (c) 2015 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 707 727 Developing muscle strength and bone density Using rubber drills and their effect At the level of performing some skills basic volleyball <p>The basis for comprehensive improvement in sports, including volleyball, is preparation<br>Comprehensive physical, which is concentrated using correct training methods and exercises consistent with the element<br>It is intended to be developed, whether it is physical or skillful, provided that it is accurate in preparing the style and method<br>Appropriate for the type of sport that he trains and the physical component that he develops. The aim of the research was to identify<br>The effect of rubber exercises on the development of muscle strength and bone density of junior soccer players<br>One of the hypotheses of the research is the existence of significant differences between the pre and post tests<br>The experimental group and the control group by the effect of rubber exercises sniffing the research community of players<br>Young people in volleyball, whose number is (91) players, and the main experiment was conducted on<br>0105 until 22/8/4102, and the experimental method was used for its suitability to the nature of the research.<br>After using the statistical treatments, the researcher reached: to the bone efficiency material for the group<br>The experimental group was better when compared to the control group, which confirms the effectiveness of the group<br>The experimental effect of the experimental curriculum, and the researcher reached the necessity of focusing and emphasizing on<br>Interest in rubber exercises because of their positive impact on the development of muscle strength and intensity<br>ossicles;</p> ا.م. د سهاد قاسم سعيد الموسوي Copyright (c) 2015 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 723 738 An actor's treatment of a character in a theatre (Brecht) epic "The play of the good man as a model" <p>The problem of this research is how the Iraqi actor deals with the dramatic character in</p> <p>Epic Theater (Brecht); Especially those in the play (The Good Man from<br>szwan); Is the treatment consistent with the propositions (Brecht) on non-reincarnation before<br>actor 0 and stand out character; and bystander dimensions to match or sympathize with<br>Personal ; Rather, look at it critically.</p> <p>The research aims to know the propositions (Brecht) about how the actor treats the character<br>dramatic; And the approach of the Iraqi representative from that way; For theatrical characters<br>(The good person from Setzwan) which was directed by (Awni Karumi) for the two bands of the Art Theater<br>Modern and popular theatre.</p> <p>In the first topic of the theoretical framework of the research, the researcher deals with what (personality) is.<br>In general, and what is the (dramatic character) in particular, and discusses the opinions of psychologists in this regard;<br>Foremost among them is Freud. In the second topic, the researcher discusses the propositions of (Bertolt Brecht).<br>about his epic theatre; and about his dramatic characters; And the foundations on which I build<br>Personal ; and its representative treatment; The actor is more like a narrator for the character<br>It is characterized by its own characteristics. Brecht rejects the psychological box of personality.<br>That is, the actor should not adopt the character's actions; Rather, it allows the spectator to look for<br>alternatives. and that personality does not represent an individual in society; Rather, it represents a particular social class or organization.</p> د. مظفر كاظم محمد Copyright (c) 2015 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 739 758 Synthesis of new N-Substituted -3- chloro -2- azetidinones for 2, 4-Diamino-6-phenyl-1,3,5-triazine <pre>The current study involved synthesis of several new N-Substituted -</pre> <pre>3- chloro -2- azetidinones for 2,4-Diamino-6-phenyl-1,3,5-triazine by two</pre> <pre>steps. The first step includes preparation of Schiff bases (Al-A6) by</pre> <pre>condensation of 2,4-Diamino-6-pheny]-1,3,5-triazine with many substituted</pre> <pre>aldehydes, then the second step includes preparation new six azetidinone</pre> <pre>compounds (B1-B6) by reaction of chloro acetyl chloride with the</pre> <pre>prepared Schiff bases in first step. The prepared compounds were</pre> <pre>characterized by physical properties, FT-IR, UV and some of them by 'H-</pre> <pre>NMR, "C-NMR spectroscopy were recorded.</pre> Tamador A. Mahmood Copyright (c) 2015 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 1 12 Synthesis of N-Substituted 3-Chloro- 2-azetidinones for 2, 4-diamino-6- hydroxy pyrimidin <pre>This search involved synthesis of several new N-Substituted -3-chloro-</pre> <pre>2-azetidinones which were known as a high medicinal effectiveness for 2,</pre> <pre>4-Diamino-6-hydroxy pyrimidin in two steps. The first step included</pre> <pre>preparation Shiff bases (1-6) by condensation of 2, 4-Diamino-6-hydroxy</pre> <pre>pyrimidin with many substituted aldehydes(4-hydroxy benzaldehyde, 2-</pre> <pre>bromobenzaldehyde, 4-dimethyl amino benzaldehyde, = 4-nitro</pre> <pre>benzaldehyde, salicylaldehyde, 4-chlorobenzaldehyde), then the second</pre> <pre>step included, preparation new six azetidinones compounds (7-12) by</pre> <pre>reaction of chloroacetylchloride with the prepared Schiff bases in the first</pre> <pre>step in the presence of triethylamine. The structures of synthesized</pre> <pre>compounds were- characterized by physical properties (FT-IR, UV and</pre> <pre>some of them by 'H-NMR, C_NMR spectroscopy) were recorded.</pre> Amal S. Sadiq Copyright (c) 2015 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 13 24 Synthesis and Characterization of some biologically active transition metal complexes for a ligand derived from dimedone with mixed ligands. <pre>The aim of the work is synthesis and characterization of bidentate ligand</pre> <pre>[3-(3-acetylphenylamino)-5,5-dimethylcyclohex-3-enone][HL], from the</pre> <pre>reaction of dimedone with 3-amino acetophenone to produce the ligand</pre> <pre>[HL], the reaction was carried out in dry benzene as a solvent under reflux.</pre> <pre>The prepared ligand [HL] was characterized by FT-IR, UV-Vis</pre> <pre>spectroscopy, 'H, 8C-NMR spectra, Mass spectra, (C.H.N) and melting</pre> <pre>point. The mixed ligand complexes were prepared from ligand [HL] was</pre> <pre>used as a primary ligand while 8-hydroxy quinoline [HQ] was used as a</pre> <pre>secondary ligand with metal ion M(IT).Where M(IT) = (Mn ,Co ,Ni ,Cu ,Zn</pre> <pre>,Cd and Pd) at reflux ,using ethanol as a solvent, KOH as a base.</pre> <pre>Complexes of the composition [M(L)(Q)] with (1:1:1) molar ratio were</pre> <pre>prepared . All the complexes were characterized by spectroscopic methods</pre> <pre>(FT-IR, UV-Vis spectroscopy) along with elemental analysis (A.A),</pre> <pre>chloride content and melting point measurements were carried out, together</pre> <pre>with conductivity and magnetic susceptibility. These measurements showed</pre> <pre>tetrahedral geometry around (Mn", Col, Ni, Cu", Zn! and Cd") ions and</pre> <pre>square planner around (Pd") ion. The biological activity of the ligands</pre> <pre>[HL],[HQ] ] and complexes (MLQ): were studied using inhibition method.</pre> Ahmed T. Numan Copyright (c) 2015 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 25 36 Adsorption Of Clomid Drug On Activated Carbon And Zinc Oxide Surfaces <pre>The research included study the adsorption of Clomid drug on the</pre> <pre>surface of activated carbon and zinc oxide. Many of parameters were</pre> <pre>studied which affect the adsorption process such as temperature, weight of</pre> <pre>adsorbent, equilibrium time, initial concentration and effect of pH.</pre> <pre>Activated carbon and zinc oxide were used as a model adsorbent in the</pre> <pre>experiments. We found that increased of temperature (30-50) °C followed</pre> <pre>by increased in adsorption capacity experiments were done at 30 °C and</pre> <pre>showed that the optimum weight of activated carbon was (0.15 g) while for</pre> <pre>zinc oxide was (0.1g), equilibrium time was (150 min) for the two</pre> <pre>adsorbents. The adsorption capacity of the two adsorbents increased with</pre> <pre>increasing initial concentration of drug, In addition, the experiments</pre> <pre>showed that the (3-7) pH was the best medium of the adsorption process.</pre> Hawraa K. Al-Husseini Copyright (c) 2015 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 37 48 توليف وتوصيف بعض المركبات الحلقية غير المتجانسة الجديدة عبر كيتون غير مشبع مع تقييم نشاطها البيولوجي <p>يتضمن هذا العمل تحضير بعض المشتقات الجديدة للبيريميدين ،<br>البيرازول والايزوكسازول من التفاعل بينهما</p> <p>benzylideneacetophenone (chalcone) (1) ومشتقات الهيدرازين في<br>وجود أسيتات الصوديوم والأسيتون الجاف للحصول على حلقية غير متجانسة<br>المركبات (2-6).</p> <p>تفاعل (2) مع البنزالديهايدات المختلفة المستبدلة بشكل مطلق<br>أعطت الإيثانول وقطرات من حمض الخليك الجليدي مشتقات قواعد شيف (8-<br>10) على التوالي. تم تفاعل قواعد شيف (8-10) مع أزيد الصوديوم في<br>THF لإعطاء مشتقات تترازول (11-13). تفاعل (2) مع الصوديوم<br>نترات وحمض الهيدروكلوريك المركز ثم مع الفينول يعطي الديازو<br>مركب (7).</p> <p>تم تشخيص المركبات المحضرة بوساطة FT.IR، 'H-<br>تم تسجيل أطياف الرنين المغناطيسي النووي ، وأطياف الأشعة فوق البنفسجية / المرئية ، ونقاط الانصهار وكانت درجة النقاء<br>فحص من خلال تقنية TLC. كانت الفعالية البيولوجية<br>تقاس لبعض المركبات المعدة.</p> M. T. Tawfiq Copyright (c) 2015 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 49 76 Production of Amylase from the fungus Aspergillus niger FA6 Isolated from Iraqi Soil. <pre>Filamentous fungi have been widely used to produce hydrolytic</pre> <pre>enzymes for many applications. Fungal enzymes amylase were</pre> <pre>produced using eight Aspergillus niger isolates from eight soil sample in</pre> <pre>Iraq, were screened for amylase production. A. niger FA6 (isolated from</pre> <pre>AL-Nasiriya soil) gave maximum amylase yield, The effect of varying</pre> <pre>&nbsp;</pre> <pre>pH, temperature, incubation period, carbon sources and_ nitrogen</pre> <pre>sources of the medium for the productivity of amylase from</pre> <pre>A.nigerFA6 was _ investigated. The maximum activity of amylase was</pre> <pre>recorded after 7 days of submerged fermentation at pH 5 and temperature</pre> <pre>30°C. from different nitrogen and carbon sources used peptone and</pre> <pre>sucrose respectively gave maximum amylase yield.</pre> Intesar Ali Mezeal Noor Muafak Alwaan Copyright (c) 2015 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 77 88 Study the Effect of Ferula hermonis Extract on HepG2 cell line culture <pre>Ferula hermonis Boiss (Apiaceae) is known in the Midleast as</pre> <pre>"zallouh". In the last decade, scientists paid attention to study</pre> <pre>&nbsp;</pre> <pre>chemistry and biological activity of the plant. In this study Ferula</pre> <pre>hermonis were collected and evaluated for cytotoxic activity. The</pre> <pre>plant was extracted with methanol The cytotoxic effect of the</pre> <pre>extracts was examined in-vitro on human cell line (Human liver</pre> <pre>carcinoma cell line HepG2). Results were shown that significant</pre> <pre>decrease of HepG2 cells viability. The effect of F. hermonis on cell</pre> <pre>viability of HepG2 cell line culture show that plant extract cause</pre> <pre>significant decrease ( p&lt; 0.05) of HepG2 cell viability, and this</pre> <pre>decrease in cell viability is increased with the increasing the extract</pre> <pre>concentrations in comparison with the negative control, and the</pre> <pre>growth inhibition percentage reach to (78.3%).</pre> <pre>Introduction</pre> <pre>&nbsp;</pre> <pre>Ferula hermonis Boiss. (Apiaceae), commonly known as " Shilsh-</pre> <pre>el-zallouh" , "Hashishat-al-kattira" or "The Lebanese Viagra" ,is a</pre> <pre>small perennial shrub that grows abundantly at more than 2500 m on</pre> <pre>the high mountain areas of northern Lebanon, and on the biblical</pre> <pre>Mount Hermon in Southern Lebanon, (El-Taher et al., 2001). Middle</pre> <pre>East herbalists have used the seeds and roots of this plant for</pre> <pre>centuries as a folk remedy as an aphrodisiac to treat frigidity in</pre> <pre>women, and erectile and sexual dysfunction in men by increasing</pre> <pre>blood flow to sexual organs. The antimicrobial activity of the crude</pre> <pre>extract and the isolated compounds has been reported (Hilan et al.,</pre> <pre>2007). Previous phytochemical studies on this plant have revealed</pre> <pre>the presence of various sesquiterpenes, mainly of the daucane ester</pre> <pre>type (Galal et al., 2001). On roots of Ferula hermonis, several</pre> <pre>sesquiterpenes have been isolated, most of which display biological</pre> <pre>activities. The active constituents are believed to be daucane alcohols</pre> Khulood Waheeb Aboud Copyright (c) 2015 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 89 100 On Z-open sets <pre>Continuous real valued function is an important tool in topology. In</pre> <pre>this paper, real valued continuous functions are used to define some kind of</pre> <pre>sets called zero sets which is the inverse image of zero of a real valued</pre> <pre>function from a topological space, the complement of zero sets is called a</pre> <pre>cozero sets, and the family of all cozero sets of a topological space X forms</pre> <pre>a base for a topology on X which is called the Z-topology on X and its</pre> <pre>elements is called Z-open sets.</pre> <pre>In this work we study the properties of these sets with some relations</pre> <pre>between it and other sets like open, cozero and zero sets. On the other hand</pre> <pre>we proved some results and characterizations with some examples.</pre> Dr.Nerjis Abdul Jabbar Dawood Noor Alawy Hussain Copyright (c) 2015 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 101 108 Some Properties Of Cartesian Product Of Two Fuzzy Normed Spaces <pre>In this paper , the concept of the Cartesian Product of two fuzzy</pre> <pre>normed spaces is presented. Some basic properties and theorems on this</pre> <pre>concept are proved. The main goal of this paper is to prove that the</pre> <pre>Cartesian product of two complete fuzzy normed spaces is a complete</pre> <pre>fuzzy normed space.</pre> <pre>Key words:Fuzzy normed space , Cartesian product , Cauchy sequence ,</pre> <pre>complete fuzzy normed space.</pre> <pre>1- Introduction</pre> <pre>&nbsp;</pre> <pre>The fuzzy set concepts was introduced in mathematics by K.Menger</pre> <pre>in 1942 and reintroduced in the system theory by L.A.Zadeh in 1965.</pre> <pre>In 1984, Katsaras [ 1 ] , first introduced the notation of fuzzy norm on</pre> <pre>linear space, in the same year Wu and Fang [ 4 ] also introduced a notion of</pre> <pre>fuzzy normed space . Later on many other mathematicians like Felbin [ 2 ]</pre> <pre>, Cheng and Mordeson [ 10] , Bag and Samanta [12], J.Xiao and X.Zhu</pre> <pre>[8,9] , Krishna and Sarma [11] , Balopoulos and Papadopoulos [ 13] etc,</pre> <pre>have given different definitions of fuzzy normed spaces .</pre> <pre>J.Kider introduced the definition of fuzzy normed space[ 7 ] , we use this</pre> <pre>definition to prove that the Cartesian product of two fuzzy normed spaces</pre> <pre>is also fuzzy normed space.</pre> <pre>&nbsp;</pre> <pre>The structure of the paper is as follow : In section 2 we</pre> <pre>present some fundamental concepts . In section 3, the definition of fuzzy</pre> <pre>normed space appeared [7] is used to prove that the cartesain product of</pre> <pre>two fuzzy normed spaces is also fuzzy normed space, then we prove that</pre> <pre>the cartesain product of two complete fuzzy normed spaces is complete</pre> <pre>fuzzy normed space.</pre> <pre>&nbsp;</pre> <pre>2. Preliminaries</pre> <pre>In this section, we briefly recall some definitions and preliminary</pre> <pre>results which are used in this paper.</pre> Raghad Ibrahim Sabre Copyright (c) 2015 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 109 116 Study the Structural/Microstructural and Electrical Properties of CdTe:Sb Thin Films Deposited by Flash Evaporation <p>in this research studied the structure and electrical properties of the Pure CdTe and&nbsp;metal Sb-doped CdTe thin films with 0.5, 1, and 1.5 wt.%, respectively. Theydeposited on glass substrates using flash evaporation technique. It was found that theprepared films had a cubic structure and a strong preferred &lt;111&gt;&nbsp;crystal orientation.Atomic force microscopy (AFM) results showed that the film surface doped Sb wasmore compact and uniform and also the root mean squared (RMS) roughnessincreased with Sb contents. The electrical properties were investigated as function ofSb wt.% doping. The results showed that the electrical conductivity (6) increasingtrend with increasing the wt.% of dopant , while the activation energies (E,i, E,2)showed an opposite trend, where the activation energies decreased with dopant.1. Introduction&nbsp;Thin films of II-VI semiconductors are widely used in many semiconductordevices such as photo electrochemical cells, field effect transistors, IR detectors,photodiodes, photo conductors and photovoltaic solar cells[1, 2]. CdTe has long beenidentified as a candidate for the absorber layer in low cost thin film photovoltaic solarcells because of its direct bandgap, high absorption coefficient and the possibility of avariety of preparation techniques such as close spaced sublimation (CSS)[3], vacuumdeposition [4], electrodeposition [5], and RF sputtering[6], close spaced vaportransport [7]. In this present work we focused attention on the prominent techniquesfor the deposition of thin films of multicomponent alloys whose constituents havedifferent vapor pressures. Thin films of CdTe have been prepared under suitablegrowth conditions by a simple flash evaporation (FE) technique. This techniquerequires only one boat maintained at sufficiently high temperature to evaporate theleast volatile component of the alloy. The main advantage of (FE) is that it does notrequire maintaining the critical vapor pressures of the components and temperatures ofthe boats unlike multisource thermal evaporation[8] .&nbsp;CdTe thin film still has many defects, such as it has extremely high resistivity. Tosolve this issue, the implying of the technique Sb-doped CdTe film to change electricalproperties [9]. In this work deposited Sb-doped CdTe films using the mixed powder of&nbsp;TO -AA suet Talal = - VN - Kya lal ayy cll 212 alae</p> Suha H. Ibraheem Copyright (c) 2015 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 117 124 Effect of Annealing Temperature on the Structure and Optical Properties of CdS:Cu Thin Films Prepard By Thermal Vacuum Evaporation <pre>In this study, we are studying the effect of annealing temperature on</pre> <pre>&nbsp;</pre> <pre>the structure and the optical properties of CdS:Cu thin films which were</pre> <pre>prepared by thermal evaporation technique in vacuum with rate deposition</pre> <pre>(4.1A°/sec) and thickness(=400nm),all these samples have been annealed at</pre> <pre>different annealing temperatures (RT,373,423 and 473 K). The structural</pre> <pre>properties of the films have been studied by using X-ray diffraction. The</pre> <pre>optical measurements indicate that CdS:Cu films have direct optical energy</pre> <pre>gap (E,""), and it decreases from 2.43 eV to 2.37 eV with the increase of</pre> <pre>annealing temperatures (R.T — 473)K. The optical constants refractive</pre> <pre>index (n), extinction coefficient (k),absorption coefficient (a) and dielectric</pre> <pre>constants (€, and €;) were also studied.</pre> Mohammed H.Mustafa Copyright (c) 2015 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 125 132 Thermodynamic and Theoretical Studies of some N-substituted phthalimides Derivatives <p>N,N’-(biphenyl)bisphthalimide and&nbsp; N-(4’-amino __ biphenyl)phthalimide were chosen in this study to compare the stabilitytheoretically by density function theory (DFT) using B3LYP/6-31Gmethod, the electronic properties of these imides indicate that compound(N,N’-(biphenyl)bisphthalimide) is more stable than the compound (N-(4’-aminobiphenyl) phthalimide) by (-0.8422 eV or -19.4215!'')depending on the values of HOMO, synthesis _ reaction of imide isspontaneous and endothermic at temperature 150°C according to the valuesof A,S, A,G and A,H thermodynamically.INTRODUCTION&nbsp;Imides are organic compounds for N-monoacy] derivatives of amidewhich may be open or cyclic chain. Cyclic imide constitute an importantclass of compounds possessing bis-amide linkage with common nitrogen.Imide very important molecules because their activity as antibacterial,antifungal, anti nociceptive, anticonvulsant and antitumor!, They havebeen useful building blocks in the synthesis of natural products’! and otherheterocycles as well!*!, Their ability to cross biological membranes in-vivo,due to their hydrophobicity is well established'“!,The preparation of imideshas received considerable attention during recent year A number ofmethods such as acylation of amides with acyl chlorides, anhydrides andcarboxylic esters or acids), amino carbonylation of aryl bromides'*! havebeen reported for the preparation of acyclic imides.COMPUTATIONAL METHODS&nbsp;Molecular geometries of the all molecules were fully optimized withthe hybrid density functional theory (DFT) B3LYP method!”"'"! using the6-31G basis set!!?!3! by means of the Gaussian 09, revision A.02!"4! usedfor all geometry optimizitions, thermodynamic functions at conditions</p> Mohammed Shamil Ali Copyright (c) 2015 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 133 140 Study of Lipid Profile and it’s Risk Factor AIP with BMI Division for CVD Patients Compared to Healthy Control <pre>This study was conducted in Ibn- Albetar specialized Hospital for</pre> <pre>Cardiovascular Disease / Baghdad from December 2011 to April 2012.</pre> <pre>Sera of 71 person of both sex aged (33-67) years, include 51 patients</pre> <pre>diagnosed with Cardiovascular disease (CVD), and 20 healthy volunteers,</pre> <pre>were used to estimate some biochemical parameters which include lipid</pre> <pre>profile (TCh,TG,HDL,LDL,VLDL) and CRP. The risk factor Atherogenic</pre> <pre>Index of Plasma (AIP) was calculated.</pre> <pre>None of the control were atherosclerotic vascular disease, diabetic,</pre> <pre>renal disease, history of allergy, alcoholic consumption and heavy smoker.</pre> <pre>Sera of the samples were divided into:</pre> <pre>1-Control group: includes (20) healthy (both sex), ages range (25-63) years,</pre> <pre>with no previous diseases which may interfere with the parameters</pre> <pre>analyzed in this study.</pre> <pre>2-Patients with ages ranged (33-67) years were divided into three groups</pre> <pre>according to Body Mass Index (BMI):</pre> <pre>a- Group (1): includes (11) patients (both sex) with BMI (20-24.9) Kg/m?.</pre> <pre>b- Group (2): includes (28) patients (both sex) with BMI (2-29.9) Kg/m?.</pre> <pre>c- Group (3): includes (12) patients (both sex) with BMI (30 to over) Kg/m?.</pre> <pre>The data of this study reveled a significant increase in the levels of TCh,</pre> <pre>TG, LDL, VLDL and AIP value, while a significant decrease in HDL level</pre> <pre>in sera of CVD patients compared to control. Also CRP showed significant</pre> <pre>increase in CVD patients groups as compared to control group. For BMI</pre> <pre>the results showed a significant increase in CVD for G2 and G3 while G1</pre> <pre>showed a significant decrease as compared to control group.</pre> <pre>These results showed a significant correlation between the risk factor</pre> <pre>AIP and the parameters studied in CVD.</pre> Muntaha Abass Lafta Isra’a Abdulzahra Copyright (c) 2015 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 141 168 Kinetic and thermodynamics study of heavy metal ions adsorption from aqueous solution using new resin 8-hydroxyquinoline-furfural-hydroquinone (HQFH). <pre>Used in this study to prepare for the new cross linked polymer</pre> <pre>adsorption to remove heavy metals(Hg*’,Cd*’,Zn*?,Pb”) in aqueous</pre> <pre>solution . Using UV-Visible spectrophotometer technique to determine the</pre> <pre>amount of adsorption and factors affecting the adsorption of PH and the</pre> <pre>distribution coefficient and the effect of temperature and study the</pre> <pre>thermodynamic functions process. The results showed that the highest</pre> <pre>amount of adsorption was ion (Zn*), which was 98.9% , Pb**= 80.2%</pre> <pre>,Cd=75.3% and Hg*=67.9%. The results the thermodynamic parameter</pre> <pre>showed that reaction exothermic and value of AG is spontaneous. The</pre> <pre>adsorption kinetic was found to follow pseudo-second order rate model,</pre> <pre>due to the high correlation coefficient(R’) and agreement between the</pre> <pre>experimental and calculated value of qe (mg/l). The results proved the</pre> <pre>applicability of isotherm Freundilch equation for adsorption coefficient</pre> <pre>higher than for Langmuir correlation equation.</pre> Mudeer Mubarak merza Copyright (c) 2015 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 169 188 Influence of pH, light and temperature on the stability of Amoxicillin and Triprolidine HCI. <pre>The stability of two drugs Amoxicillin and Triprolidine . HCl was</pre> <pre>studied in aqueous solution . The results show that Amoxicillin was stable in</pre> <pre>PH range (2-8), while it decomposed at pH more than (6) . The same results</pre> <pre>have been shown when the solution temperature was varied between 25-</pre> <pre>100C° , the decomposition occurred at a temperature above 60C° . When</pre> <pre>Amoxicillin exposed to UV light in presence of O, gas , it was unstable , but</pre> <pre>was relatively stable in the absence of O&gt; gas . Triprolidine HCl was stable</pre> <pre>under the same above condition and factors .</pre> <pre>UV- Visible spectrometer was used to follow the spectrum of two drugs.</pre> Thoraia M.AlKalisy Maad talib abdulrahman Copyright (c) 2015 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 189 196 Prevalence of Parasites in Soil by two Floatation Techniques and Modified Acid-Fast stain in Baghdad city <p>The objective of the present study is to determine the prevalence ofparasitic forms such as (eggs, Oocysts,....etc) in soil texture (loam) duringthe period from September 2013 to March 2014 by using two floatationtechniques (Saturated salt floatation and Sheather’s floatation techniques),in addition to the Modified acid fast stain technique to detect Oocyst. 100soil samples were collected from different locations and random areas in(50 soil samples from Al-Karch &amp; 50 soil samples from Al-Rusafa) forisolation the parasites by two floatation techniques, and modified acid faststain method in Baghdad city. Our result showed that, Toxocara spp. eggsisolated by two floatation techniques in (48.00%&amp;42.00%) from Al-Karch&amp; Al-Rusafa places respectively, in addition to the Chi-Square appearedhighly significant for this isolation (9.25)(</p> Maisam Balasim Al-Khamesi Alya Saeed Salman Copyright (c) 2015 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 197 208 Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) as Biomarker for urinary bladder tumor <p>Tumor associated macrophage (TAMs) are alternatively activated macrophages that enhance tumor progression by prompting tumor cell invasion ,migration and angiogenesis .The study aimed to detect of the distribution TAM bladder tumor tissues , and to clarify the relationship between the TAMs and clinicopathological grade of bladder cancer. Immunohisochemistry was used to detect CD68 as general marker for TAMs macrophage in tissue . Fifty patients with urinary bladder carcinoma and twenty benign bladder biopsies from patients with urinary bladder diseases (UBD) were included in this study . Our data showed a high positive immunohistochemical CD68 expression of UBC tumor tissues than in UBD tumor tissues (84% versus 45% ; p≤ 0.01) , also a significant difference was observed in grades among patients with UBC in CD68+ expression, high grade tumor cases showed positive immunohistochemical CD68 expression in 27(96.4%), while only 15 cases (68.2%) of low grade tumor showed positive CD68 expression . The results showed that the infiltration of CD68-positive may contribute to poor prognosis in advanced urinary bladder carcinoma</p> Hind M. Mousa Copyright (c) 2015 2023-02-06 2023-02-06 21 88 209 218