A Critical Discourse Analysis of Islamophobic Discourse on Selected American and British News Websites
The recent dramatic change of events in the world , particularly 11th Sept. , Nice Attack and the appearance of ISIS, have made Islam, Muslims, and matters pertaining to them "news today" , i. e.,one of the most important and attractive topics. Events and actions happening in the name of Islam or by those who misinterpret Islam have given media giant stories for portraying Islam and Muslims negatively . So , media have started to use different linguistic means to attain their political , ideological , or economic goals .The current study is a critical discourse analysis aiming at investigating the Islamophobic discourse that media are inclined to use in representing Islam and Muslims ; thus, it also aims at investigating the representation of anti-Islam ideologies on Western news websites .
To achieve these aims , the study hypothesizes that (1) a biased negative technique of selection of materials is used in representing Islam and Muslims on news websites and (2) the linguistic tools mostly used and the ideas given focus to on British and American news websites are almost simmilar reflecting similsr idiologies in dealing with Islam and Muslims.
To carry out the study , six articles from two websites are selected . The articles are analyzed linguistically and ideologically according to Fairclough's three dimensional approach (2010) which ,in turn, employs the notion of thematization in addition to Halliday's systemic functional tools.
The main conclusions of the current study are as follows : (i) all the hypotheses set for the study have been verified , (ii) Islamophobia on Western news websites is taking a grave direction which is looked at as a representation of Islam and Muslims, that is , mainly the generalization of every negative incident or feature about Islam as a faith and on the majority of pacifist Muslims (iii) anti-Islam bias ideologies are represented on Western news websites through five primary themes (the theme of violence ,the theme of Muslim women, the theme of Sharia Law , the theme of the prophet Muhammad (PBUH) and the theme of Muslim/Non-Muslim relationship ).